Machine learning notes

Machine learning roadmap

  • Build a strong foundation in mathematics: Linear algebra Calculus (multivariable and differential equations) Probability and statistics Optimization
  • Learn programming languages: Python is widely used in the AI and ML community due to its simplicity and extensive libraries. R is another language popular for data analysis and statistical modeling.
  • Study data manipulation and analysis: Learn to work with data using libraries like NumPy, pandas, and Matplotlib in Python. Understand data cleaning, preprocessing, and visualization techniques.
  • Gain knowledge of machine learning fundamentals: Study supervised learning (regression, classification) and unsupervised learning (clustering, dimensionality reduction). Learn about various ML algorithms, such as linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, SVM, k-means, and PCA. Understand concepts like bias-variance tradeoff, overfitting, underfitting, and regularization. Utilize libraries like scikit-learn in Python for implementing ML algorithms.
  • Deep learning and neural networks: Learn the basics of artificial neural networks, backpropagation, and activation functions. Study convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image recognition and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for sequence data. Explore deep learning libraries like TensorFlow, Keras, and PyTorch.
  • Natural language processing (NLP): Understand text preprocessing, tokenization, stemming, and lemmatization. Learn about word embeddings, like Word2Vec and GloVe. Study NLP models, such as RNNs, LSTMs, GRUs, and transformers (e.g., BERT, GPT).
  • Reinforcement learning: Learn the fundamentals of reinforcement learning, including concepts like Markov decision processes, Q-learning, and policy gradients.
  • Specialize in a domain: Focus on a specific domain or application of AI/ML, such as computer vision, robotics, speech recognition, or recommendation systems.

Domains of ML

  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): NLP focuses on enabling computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language. Tasks include machine translation, sentiment analysis, text summarization, and question-answering systems.
  • Computer Vision: This domain deals with the processing and understanding of digital images and videos. Tasks include object recognition, image segmentation, facial recognition, and optical character recognition (OCR).
  • Speech Recognition and Synthesis: This domain involves converting spoken language into written text (speech-to-text) and generating human-like speech from text (text-to-speech).
  • Robotics: AI and ML play a significant role in making robots more intelligent, autonomous, and adaptive. This includes tasks like robot localization, mapping, path planning, and human-robot interaction.
  • Recommender Systems: These systems provide personalized recommendations to users, such as movie, music, or product recommendations based on user preferences and behaviors.
  • Anomaly Detection: AI/ML can be used to identify unusual patterns or behaviors in data, such as fraud detection in financial transactions, network intrusion detection, and equipment failure prediction.
  • Healthcare: AI/ML applications in healthcare include medical image analysis, drug discovery, genomics, disease prediction, and personalized medicine.
  • Finance: AI/ML has transformed the financial industry with applications like algorithmic trading, credit scoring, risk management, and customer service chatbots.
  • Marketing and Customer Analytics: Businesses use AI/ML to analyze customer behavior, segment customers, optimize pricing, and improve targeting for marketing campaigns.
  • Autonomous Vehicles: AI/ML technologies are crucial for the development of self-driving cars, including tasks like perception, localization, mapping, and decision-making.
  • Reinforcement Learning: This domain focuses on training agents to make optimal decisions by interacting with an environment, often used in robotics, gaming, and resource allocation problems.
  • Generative Models: These models are designed to generate new, realistic data samples. Examples include Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) for image synthesis and text generation models like GPT.
  • Social Network Analysis: AI/ML can help analyze social network data, including community detection, influence estimation, and link prediction.